So.. as stupid as this may sound, I've never really known about fallacies. That is, until this year, when we learned about them. To tell 당신 the truth, I felt pretty stupid after that English lesson.. not because I had never known about fallacies, but because I realized that I used them in A LOT of arguments. O.o
So I guess I just wanna list a couple of 인기 ones, and define them for any of 당신 who also don't really know about fallacies, and just talk a bit about them and how I've used them before. 1. ad hominem This is when the arguer attacks the person instead of the argument they're making.
Well well well well. I'm not sure if I do this often, because I can't bring myself to remember a time I criticized a person instead of their argument, but then again, I could have been doing it subconsciously. Here is an example of a person using the ad hominem fallacy:
Person 1: 개 are better than cats.
Person 2: No, 고양이 are better!
Person 1: 개 are better because they are 더 많이 trusting and loving than cats.
Person 2: 고양이 are loving creatures too.
Person 1: I didn't say 고양이 weren't loving, but 개 are 더 많이 loving than them.
Person 2: You're such an idiot! Any smart person knows that 고양이 are better!
See? If 당신 were the 초 person in this argument, 당신 probably even wouldn't realize that 당신 were using a fallacy. Why? Because it's just a reflex 당신 have when you're in an argument, and you're frustrated. It might be because 당신 don't have any evidence 또는 facts to support your side of the argument left, 또는 maybe you're in the heat of the argument and 당신 say that out of passion. Who knows… the point is it's stupid. It might not sound stupid then, but if 당신 review the argument later on, 당신 realize how stupid it was. What's even worse is that the person you're arguing with will probably notice that you're attacking them instead of their argument, and that doesn't give off a good impression. -.-
*** 2. ad ignorantiam When 당신 state that a specific belief is true because we don't know that it's not true.
Haha! Sorry, it's just that I use this one….. A LOT. I'm Christian, and so I'm always ready to defend the existence of God, but I've never realized how often my arguments use this fallacy. Here's an example:
Atheist: God doesn't exist.
Me: Yes, He does.
Atheist: How do 당신 know that?
Me: Because 당신 don't know for sure that He doesn't. There isn't any real evidence.
I do this in almost any argument about religion, and I'm sure 당신 do too in any kind of argument really. It's hard not to… I mean, it seems like the PERFECT response, when in fact, it isn't. I guess it's an easy-way-out, when 당신 don't have any evidence to back yourself up. Heh. Quite sad really, so be careful about this one! It's hard to not use it at times..
*** 3. Argument from authority When 당신 state that something is true because an individual of high authority 또는 power says so.
"You must 사랑 others because God said so." This is probably my state of mind at all times, but in this case, it isn't a bad thing because I'm not arguing with anyone, and when was loving someone a bad thing?! An example of this fallacy would be:
Person 1: Aliens exist.
Person 2: How do 당신 know?
Person 1: Well, there have been UFO sightings 의해 airline pilots, so that's proof that they exist.
Person 2: Can 당신 trust these airline pilots?
Person 1: Of course! They are trained observers, they're reliable, and don't panic in emergencies. They are completely trustworthy.
I'm not sure how many of 당신 use this fallacy in your arguments, but it's understandable because it seems like common sense to trust any professional. The only thing 당신 need to know is that highly educated people can sometimes be wrong~ we are human after all.
*** 4. Post Hoc 또는 Doubtful Cause Because one event follows another, the first event must be the cause for the second.
I'm pretty sure that people do this a lot, because it seems logical, and sometimes it could be the case. However, there are other factors that can cause a situation, besides the prior event. Here is an example of this fallacy:
I didn't do my Math homework, and I failed the 다음 Math test we had. My Math teacher failed me because I didn't do his/her work.
..or another example I like:
Since Obama has come into office; unemployment has increased. Obama's policies have caused 더 많이 people to be unemployed.
As 당신 can see, it's pretty straightforward. This fallacy is very much about assumptions, so 당신 can pretty much say that whenever 당신 make an assumption, 당신 might be using this fallacy! Be cautious assumptive arguments.
*** 5. False Analogy Assuming a similarity between two things, people, 또는 situations when in fact the two things being compared are not similar in any fashion.
I do this a lot, especially when I'm arguing with my brother. I guess it's because I'm trying to think of a comparison, and go with the first thing that comes to mind, which often ends up being a useless comparison. Here is an example of a false analogy:
This 미트볼 파스타 tastes like heaven!
A simple harmless face…. laced with a false analogy. A 미트볼 파스타 has a physical existence, whereas heaven is spiritual. Therefore, 당신 cannot compare the two, because they are completely different from each other. On the other hand, 당신 won't be taken to jail if 당신 do, because you're merely hyperbole to express and emphasize how 당신 feel about the pasta. The only time 당신 shouldn't use a hyperbole is if you're trying to make a serious argument… 당신 don't want to exaggerate then, but be clear and concise.
*** 6. Non sequitur When 당신 make an argument in which the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises.
Sounds kinda like the post hoc right? Well, it's similar in some ways, but the difference is that the post hoc is due to a lack of a casual connect, but the non sequitur fallacy is due to a lack of a logical connection. Non sequiturs are jumps in logic, that really make no sense. Here is an example, I had to take it from this site: <link
> because I actually had trouble thinking of my own:
There is a God; the Bible says God created the Earth about 6000 years ago. Therefore, the world is only about 6000 years old.
I'm not sure if I even need to say much about this, because it's pretty straightforward. I can't say that I use this fallacy a lot, but 당신 can think of times when 당신 might have. :P
*** 7. Slippery Slope Stating that an event will result from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question.
This is one of my favorites, because I use it a lot, and I'm sure other people do too. :D Don't like.. there is one point in your life when you've done this. Probably for emphasis 또는 something, because this fallacy seems like the kind 당신 purposely use, not accidentally. Eh, any-who… Here's an example:
We have to stop global warming, otherwise in a couple of years, we'll all be dead!
…another famous one:
당신 can never give anyone a break. If 당신 do, they'll walk over you.
Slippery slopes usually jump a couple of steps, so instead of going from Point A to Point B, 당신 end up going from Point A to Point E. So, even though global warming is ruining our planet, and will cause HUGE issues in the future, if 당신 state your argument like I did above, it sounds quite ridiculous. Even the 초 example may be true, but 당신 can't state that giving even one person a break will cause everyone to walk over you. I think all the fallacies I've mentioned have one moral: Think before 당신 speak. Lol.. otherwise, 당신 end up sounding quite stupid, for lack of a better word.
*** 8. Straw Man When 당신 misinterpret 또는 set up a fake/weaker example of someone's argument, and then disagree with the fake argument.
I do this a lot, except I don't even know when I do. Whenever I argue about the existence of God, I usually do this because it's just easier than trying to argue with the real argument, lol. I don't do it on purpose though, but I'm pretty sure that all them Atheists I argue with think I am.. ^.^ Here is an example:
Boy: Dad, can we get a dog?
Father: No son.
Boy: But why?
Father: Because a dog is a lot of work, and we don't have the time and patience to take care of one.
Boy: A dog would be great protection! 당신 want to leave our house unprotected!
Seems kind of silly when 당신 read it, but 당신 probably do that everyday if your life. Face it, 당신 do. Whether on purpose 또는 not, 당신 do because that's just the way it is. Great debaters always make sure to argue with the other person's argument, and not with a straw man. I am not a great debater, so I always make that mistake. It's actually REALLY hard.. 당신 have no idea. It's like a subconscious thing. :P Argh, stupid straw man.
*** 9. Begging the 질문 또는 Circular Reasoning Making an argument in which each stage of the argument uses the 이전 stage as justification.
Basically, going around in circles. I do this a lot as well, because like most of these fallacies, it just makes things easier! It also makes a lot of sense while typing the argument, but when someone points it out and 당신 re-read what 당신 wrote…. yeah, it looks pretty dumb. Here is an example:
Believer: God does exist.
Non-believer: How do 당신 know?
Believer: Because the Bible says so.
Non-believer: How do 당신 know the Bible is saying the truth?
Believer: Because it was written 의해 God.
I actually googled this example, and the first time I read it, I didn't see the fallacy. It seemed like a perfectly normal and valid argument to me! Hahaha! I really need to reevaluate myself. Anyway, after the 3rd read, I got it and I had to 헤로인 myself on the forehead, because I probably use circular reasoning a lot. :P I'm sure 당신 do as well… let's face it. It's just one of those things that's 초 nature…. 또는 maybe that's just me.
*** 10. Appeal to 인기 Opinion When 당신 claim that an idea 또는 belief is true because it's what most people believe.
Another common one, that EVERYONE uses. Don't lie to yourself, 당신 do it all the time. When 당신 decide to buy the new iPhone 또는 new 음악 album 의해 Rihanna, you're using this fallacy; the only reason you're buying those items is because EVERYONE says they're great. Here is an example of this fallacy:
Me: I have to go see the Avengers!
Me: Because it's a great movie!
Wendy: How do 당신 know? 당신 haven't even watched it..
Me: Because everyone says it's great!
Just a side note: the Avengers actually is a pretty epic movie, so 당신 should watch it. Anyway, this fallacy is very very popular, because it's usually how we make decisions in life.. lol. However, if you're an independent, strong individual, then perhaps 당신 don't succumb to using this fallacy. O.o